I. From the origins to the Middle Ages
We can say that the origins of Bordeaux are related to trade, even if the site reveals traces of earlier occupation. Its founders, Bituriges Vivisques, Celtic tribe from the north of France, controlled from inside the port, traffic tin brought from Armorica.
In the third century BC, between the islands and MÃ©ditÃ©ranÃ©e Cassiterides, Burdigalia (Bordeaux) seems to be the stage of the road.
It is at the confluence with the Garonne and two small streams, and the Peugue DevÃ¨ze, that the rise of the tide made ââit possible to install a small port.
In 56 BC. the conquest of the region by Crassus, Caesar's lieutenant, led to a period of economic prosperity and the birth of a rational planning.
The city is characterized by a cardo (now St. Catherine Street and during the Stewardship) and decumanus was built aqueducts, temples, an amphitheater and a curie. Burdigalia is thus only a small port. Until the late first century BC, we only have a modest market town. This is the Second we speak of civitas of Roman law.
In 276, the city was sacked by a horde of vandals and retreats into the enclosure of its walls narrowed. But she continues to shine for more than a century, illustrated by his Christian poets (Ausonius 309-394) and his saints (Saint Paulinus of Nola 353-431). The port will be protected by a castrum to 278 (depending on the current layout of the course of Alsace-Lorraine, in the Rue des Remparts and during the Red Hat and Stewardship).
Ausonius (310-394), large landowner, a university professor, prefect and consul of saplings, but also a poet has left us in his writings valuable evidence of life in Bordeaux at the time. He describes the good life during the Pax Romana. Most interesting vestiges of economic and political development in the Roman period are undoubtedly preserved the monumental ruins and the great expanse of the city.
An extension develops outside walls (suburbium) around monasteries and churches. One of the biggest changes is the disappearance of the inner harbor, the business will now outside the walls. Burdigalia retain its importance by its political and ecclesiastical.
The peace was interrupted by the successive barbarian invasions. The Vanadales in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, and the Normans in the tenth century. The seventh century marks a high point in the parochial organization of Bordeaux with the founding of the churches of Saint-Remy, St. Peter and St. Simeon, however, the city was sacked by the Vikings in 848.
This is the X that the city became the principal city of the duchy of Gascony and in 1058 the Counts of Poitiers became dukes of Aquitaine.
Charles Higounet shows that the development of Bordeaux is the expansion campaigns that bring environantes market and craft center. At the end of XI is built south of the district south Rousselle and yet there appears a sort of half circle, outside of the Castrum, a new town whose center is outside the Church of St. Michel.
After 1154 (the year of accession to the throne of England Henry II Plantagenet, husband of Eleanor of Aquitaine) Bordeaux prospered through its union with England. The expansion of the city required the building of new speakers: in 1227 the south, to protect the new districts (Rue Neuve, Rousselle, etc..) In 1327, to integrate new suburbs (St. Croix, St. Eulalia , St. Michael). The parishes of St. Michael and St. Peter were peopled then artisans (blacksmiths, carpenters or fustiers) leaving their names to streets and Faures Fusterie. This was the first golden age, that of the bourgeois wine sold to the English at the same time they were granted by the government - far - kings Dukes of communal liberties (including the Big Bell, "Belfry" of city ââHall, is still the emblem).
However the tutelage of the English monarchy is slight because ultimately this is not the sovereign. Thus the jurade city can she keep the privileges that were granted by Henry III in 1254.
In the XIII St. Andrew's Cathedral is built and its archbishop Bertrand de Got became Pope under the name of Clement V in 1305.
The medieval city reached its peak during the reign of the Black Prince, Edward of Woodstock. His father King Edward III of England gave him Guienne own. From 1362 to 1372 Bordeaux briefly became capital of an independent state. But the tax burden imposed on the Gascon lords is so strong that the Black Prince is soon to abandon its plans to erect the Guyenne autonomous state. Furthermore, the repeated assaults of Charles V and Constable Du Guesclin reduce its British possessions in a narrow strip of land from Bordeaux to Bayonne.
In 1453, end of the Hundred Years War (Battle of Castillon), after the French conquest, Bordeaux experienced difficult times, the return to France was little appreciated by the bourgeoisie of Bordeaux and Bordeaux rebelled: against the disruption to trade and high taxes. Also, to destroy any attempt to revolt against the monarchy, Charles VIII, who distrusted Anglophile sentiments of the local bourgeoisie, decided in 1495 to a royal city of Bordeaux and have it build two forts: Fort du Ha for defend the city from attacks from the south and west, and the castle which the Trumpet protÃ©gÃ©eait side of the river. The urbanization accelerated, however, after the vicissitudes of the Middle Ages: in 1450, the city had over 30,000 inhabitants in an area of ââ170 ha enclosure. Installation of Parliament within the palace walls OmbriÃ¨re, former residence of the dukes of Aquitaine, was the Saint-Pierre's place of residence of parliamentarians and the Court: street names Merignac, MÃ©tivier or Mule perpetuate the existence of such illustrious families as it was then that erected the triumphal arch of the door Cailhau, in honor of Charles VIII. From 1581 to 1585, Michel de Montaigne was the mayor of Bordeaux, his mandate was marked by construction of any public building, but the city remained intact, as Montaigne tried to leave the fighting religious wars and succession to the crown of France.
But in the wars of the Fronde among the French nobility and the king, the burghers of Bordeaux are the conspiracy of OrmÃ©e.
It was not until 1653, when the young Louis XIV made ââhis entry into the city submitted by arms, that Bordeaux finally accept to be part of the kingdom of France.
If, on the artistic, the Renaissance, which left its imprint on the cathedral, not expressed in any set of large, deep changes in the urban fabric intervened against the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in favor of business development, trade with the West Indies and the slave trade: port supported growth and a growing population (more than 70 000 inhabitants in the late eighteenth century), Bordeaux then undergoes a radical transformation by building the facade of the quays and the development of large courses. The seventeenth century saw the draining of marshes to Chartrons, but the most original period extends from the early eighteenth century to the mid-nineteenth. Through trade with the West Indies, Bordeaux became before 1789, the first port of the kingdom. Under the impetus of the great stewards (Boucher, Tourny, Dupre de Saint Maur), the city awarded him a new face with the creation of the Place Royale (Place de la Bourse) which cut down the middle the medieval city. Similarly, the development of a city tour of the old moat of the public garden in 1746 Tourny's paths in 1749, followed three decades later by the achievements of Victor Louis, finished to give the Bordeaux physiognomy of classic city we know today.
Bordeaux is struck by the Revolution and the Empire, which prevent the Atlantic trade. She thinks a moment to revolt at the call of the Girondins, but the conventional Tallien a reign of terror.
When the Napoleonic empire collapses, Bordeaux is the first city to host the princes of the House of Bourbon. In honor of the faithful city, the son of the Duke of Berry, Count of Chambord, received the title of Duke of Bordeaux.
Ruined by the Napoleonic Wars, the city awoke to the Restoration with the demolition of the castle Trumpet in 1816, replaced by huge Quinconces (1818-1827), and building the first bridge across the Garonne. Thus began the "march west" of the city, with the construction of these "shops", low houses of the urban landscape characteristics Bordeaux. Accompanying population growth (120 000 inhabitants in 1830, 250,000 in 1914) and industrial port, the great works of the Second Empire and that of the Third Republic finished the historical image of the city.
Nineteenth century to the present
It was only after 1840 that the Bordeaux trade opens new horizons with the trading of the Senegalese groundnut. Bordeaux then becomes a major colonial port and the head lines of messaging to South America and Central America.
At the end of the century the city became industrialized with chemical, metallurgical, food and oil mills. At the same time touches the phylloxera vineyard.
During World War Bordeaux enjoyed a certain prosperity with arms factories, and in 1917 became one of the crossings of the U.S. Army. It is at this moment the city of the Action and French leagues that make the political climate agitated.
World War II marks a new period of unrest for Bordeaux. Deportations took place and responsibilities are poorly defined. Adrien Marquet, the mayor is convicted by the High Court in the national indignity. Characters like the prefect Papon remain obscure.
The city found in the aftermath of conflict, a hello Jacques Chaban-Delmas in general resistance, became mayor in 1947.
He set up a policy with the organization of cultural festivals, an urbanization policy for the extension of the city.
In parallel a new industrialization began in the 70s with the aerospace and the Ford plant, while the trade collapsed.
Gradually with the economic crisis and rising unemployment, the city management team by Chaban-Delmas was criticized and it must give way to Alain Juppe in June 1995.
To conclude we can say that Bordeaux has long had the reputation of a bourgeois city, or the provincial oligarchy reigns. She is currently a great university city, the important architectural heritage, which is turning more and more on tourism strong in its gastronomic strengths and an outstanding natural environment.
HISTORICAL- Bordeaux General History
CULTURE- Patrimony Day